Tuesday, March 29, 2011

nyAya - 01

Introduction to Hinduism -

nyAya is a philosophical system which examines the means and methods to explore the fundamental problem of reality. It's focus is on the means of knowledge and not on the nature of knowledge. nyAya provides an analytical investigative framework to explore the objects and subjects of human knowledge. It is also known as tarkavidyA (science of reasoning) and vAdavidyA (science of discussion).

The founder of nyAya is gautama, who was also known as aksapAda (one whose eyes are directed towards the feet) and dIrghatapas (one who undertakes long penances) given his physical mannerisms especially during contemplations. His date of birth or when he lived is uncertain - he has been dated as early as 550 BC (by Hindu scholars) to as late as 200 AD (by Western Christian scholars).

1. nyAya sUtra by gautama
1. The earliest commentary on the nyAya sUtra called vAtsyAyana bhAshya was written by vAtsyAyana.
2. udyotakara wrote a commentary on this commentary called bhAshyavAttika, as a response to criticism by Buddhist diNanAga
3. vArttika-tAtparyaTikA by vAchashpati mishra - a commentary on bhAshyvAttika
4. nyAyatAtparyaTikA-parishuddhi by Udayana
5. nyAya nibandha prakAsha by varddhamAna
6. varddhamAnendu by padmAnabha mishra
7. nyAya tAtparyamaNDana by shankara mishra

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