Skip to main content


Showing posts from November, 2011

Classical Sanskrit Literature - 07 - First Development Phase - Post-Kalidasa Literature - 2

8. bANa (7th century) harShacharita - biography of Harsha kAdambarI 9. shUdraka mRRchchakaTika 10. harSha / harShavardhana of Kanauj (606-647 C.E) i. priyadarshikA ii. ratnAvali iii. nAgAnanda 11. vishAkhadatta mudrArAkshasa 12. bhavabhUti i. mahAvIra charita, based on Ramayana ii. uttara charita, based on Ramayana iii. mAlatImAdhava

Classical Sanskrit Literature - 06 - First Development Phase - Post-Kalidasa Literature - 1

1. bhAravi (~625 C.E) kirAtArjunIyam - Based on the Mahabharatic Pandavas 2. bhaTTI (~625 C.E) rAvaNavadha or bhaTTIkAvya - Teaches grammar thru poetry and based on Ramayana 3. kumAradAsa (~650 C.E) jAnakIharaNa - Based on Ramayana 4. mAgha (~700 C.E) shishupAlavadha - Based on Mahabharatic events 5. dAmodargupta, minister of Jayapida (779 - 813 C.E) kuTTanImata 6. daNDin (7th century) dashakumAracharita 7. subhandu (7th century) vAsavdattA

Classical Sanskrit Literature - 05 - First Development Phase - Works of Kalidasa

The first development phase of classical Sanskrit literature is associated with Kalidasa. This is the beginning of the phase known as the " Golden Age of Classical Sanskrit literature. " Kalidasa (kAlidAsa) lived around 4th century C.E is is regraded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language. His plays and poetry are primarily based on itihAsa-s and purANa-s. Poetry 1. kumArasambhava 2. raghuvaMsha, based on Padma Purana 3. meghadUta 4. RRitusaMhAra Drama 1. mAlavikAgnimitra 2. vikramorvashiya 3. abhiGYAnAshakuntalam Attributed to Kalidasa but doubtful 1. pushpa vAna vilAsa 2. shRRi~NgAratilaka

Tantra - 15 - Important Sections of Texts

1. pichumata from brahmayAmala 2. pi~Ngalamata from brahmayAmala (supposedly) 3. uttaratantra of rudrayAmala 4. anuttaratantra from rudrayAmala 5. Anandagahavara or AnandashAsana 6. dixottara 7. trishirobhairava 8. yogasaMchAra 9. vIrAvali 10. ratnamAlA 11. mAdhvakula 12. UrmishAstra 13. gamashAstra 14. kulakrIDAvatAra

Tantra - 14 - List of Yamalas

Some of the common list of Yamalas derived from sources like Brahma Yamala, Vidyananda, Tantrachintamani and Jayaratha: 1. Brahma Yamala 2. Vishnu Yamala 3. Rudra Yamala 4. Skanda Yamala 5. Svachchanda Yamala 6. Ruru Yamala 7. Jayadhrata Yamala 8. Siddha Yamala 9. Atharvana Yamala 10. Yama Yamala 11. Vayu Yamala 12. Uma Yamala 13. Devi Yamala 14. Vetala Yamala 15. Kubera Yamala 16. Indra Yamala 17. Lakshmi Yamala 18. Ganesh Yamala 19. Chandra Yamala 20. Shakti Yamala

Tantra - 13 - Yamala

The term yAmala denotes the primeval non-dual state of Shiva and Shakti. Achievement of this Unity is the ultimate goal of the Tanntric sAdhaka. As per Goudriann (Page 40), Yamalas can be distinguished from other works based on certain characteristics: a. most Yamalas were typically Bhairava-tantras characterized by the development of Shakta tendencies within Shaivism b. While Yamalas in principle describe the bi-polarity of Shiva and Shakti, the Shakta Tantra focus on a particular Shakti c. The subjects described in the Yamalas as well as their tone is markedly different from those of the general Shaiva Agamas However there are exceptions to each of these three rules.

Tantra - 12 - List of Early Shaiva Tantra texts

1. Amritesha Tantra, or Netra Tantra 2. Netragyanarnava Tantra 3. Nishvasa Tattva Samhita 4. Bhairavi Shikha Tantra (lost) 5. Vina Shikha Tantra (lost) 6. Vinamani Shikha Tantra (lost) 7. Sammohana Shikha Tantra (lost) 8. Damara Shikha Tantra (lost) 9. Atharvaka Shikha Tantra (lost) 10. Kabandha Shikha Tantra (lost) 11. Shirascheda Tantra (lost) 12. Nandi Shikha Tantra (fragmentary) 13. Bharga Shikha Tantra (fragmentary) 14. Kabandha Shikha Tantra (fragmentary) 15. Kalottara Tantra 16. Sarva Gyanottara Tantra 17. Kriya Kala Gunottara Tantra 18. Lingarchana Tantra Next

Tantra - 11 - Northern and Southern Shavia Tantric traditions

The Kashmiri Shaivas considered the GYAna part of the southern Shaiva Agamas as authoritative. However they were reluctant to accept any dualist or pluralist standpoint. The northern Shaivas were reluctant to over-emphasize on rituals like the Southern traditionalists did. The form of the Shaiva Tantras are more diversified than the Agamas. Another distinguishing feature of the Norther Shaiva Tantric literature is the attention given to the notion of Shakti. Next

Tantra - 10 - Shavia Agama and Tantra

The terms Tantra and Agama are used interchangeably although there are some differences between them. The Shaiva Agamas especially in South India, although containing Tantric elements,  focus more on practical matters like: a. regular worship, ritual procedures and religious behaviors b. temple construction c. installation of images The Shaiva Tantras, although describing the ritualistic elements, tend to focus more on: a. metaphysical speculation b. devotees personal religious experience c. release from bonding d. gaining supernatural faculties Next

Tantra - 09 - The importance of Guru

As per Tantra, one can start sAdhanA only when initiated by the guru. Female gurus are generally preferred, especially one's mother. Diksha or initiation is an extremely important part of the sAdhana process. It is of two kinds: a. bahirdIkShA - consisting of external rites b. anataradIkShA - consisting of the awakening of kuNDalinI

Tantra - 08 - chakra and kuNDalinI

The human body is thought to consist of 6 nerve-plexuses, or centers of spiritual energy. 1. mUlAdhAra (4 petals) - located in the lowest part of the spinal cord 2. svAdhiShThAna (6 petals) - above the mUlAdhAra but below the navel 3. maNipurA (10 petals) - in the navel 4. anAhata (12 petals) - in the heart 5. vishuddha (16 petals) - in the neck 6. AGYA - (2 petals) between the eyebrows Kundalini is the vital energy, in the form of a coil, located at the mUlAdhAra. It is believed to be a latent energy existing in a potential state (Shakti). One of the key goals of a sAdhaka is to convert this latent kunDalinI (awaken the serpent) and to cuase it to move upwards along the sushumnA nADI and passing through the six chakras to reach the crown of the head where Shiva resides (sahasrAra padma).

Tantra - 07 - nADI

Tantra postulates that the human body has numerous nADI-s or arteries/ veins or ducts/ channels of flow. According to tShiva Samhita, there are fourteen principal nadis. There are supposed to be a total of 72,000 nADI-s as per one tradition, of which 72 are common and generally known. The three most important nADI-s are: 1. iDA - left of spinal cord 2. pingalA - right of the spinal cord 3. sushumnA - it is the central channel extending from mUlAdhAra to brahmarandhra Other important nADI-s are: 4. Gandhari 5. Hastijihva 6. Pusa 7. Yasavini 8. Alambusha 9. Kuhuh 10. Shankini 11. Payasvini 12. Varuni 13. Vishvodhara 14. Saraswati

Tantra - 06 - kosha

Tantra divides the human body into five planes (kosha) each more subtle than the previous: 1. annamaya - the gross body which subsists on food 2. prANamaya - the vital plane of life breath 3. manomaya - the mental plane 4. viGYAnamaya - the plane  of Consciousness 5. Anandamaya - the plane of supreme bliss The imagery generally used with the koshas is that of sleep: 1. In deep sleep, the Anandamaya kosha is what stands between the finite world and the Self 2. viGYAnamaya is associated with organs of perception - when somebody is about to wake up, it comes in between the Anandamaya and the finite world 3. manomaya - the separation of I and mine - when somebody is waking, the manomaya plane causes the separation of I and mine. 4. pranamaya kosha - that which makes one realize that he is alive - he exists 5. annnamaya kosha - the awake state

Tantra - 05 - saT karma

Magical Practices are known as saT karma. Typically they are in relation to: 1. mAraNa - killing 2. stambhana - paralyzing 3. uchchATana - expulsion 4. vashIkarana - similar to hypnotizing and bringing under control 5. vidveShane - causing hatred 6. shAnti - peace Previous   Next

Tantra - 04 - Contents of Tantras

The contents of Tantric literature  can be broadly divided into three categories: a. Philosophical/ Spiritual/ Metaphysical - GYAna and yoga b. Practical aspects - kriyA (rules for constructing temples, idols) c. Popular aspects - charyA (rules about rituals, social duties) i. mantra - incantations, spells ii. mudrA - different postures of hands and fingers iii. maNDala and yantra - diagrams iv. nyAsa - association of deities with different body parts Previous   Next

Durga Devi Kavacham - Bengali

ইতি স্তোত্রম্ || অথ কবচম্ শৃণু দেবি প্রবক্ষ্যামি কবচং সর্বসিদ্ধিদম্ || পঠিত্বা পাঠযিত্বা চ নরো মুচ্যেত সঙ্কটাত্ || অজ্ঞাত্বা কবচন্দেবি দুর্গামন্ত্রঞ্চ যো জপেত্ | স নাপ্নোতি ফলন্তস্য পরঞ্চ নরকম্ব্রজেত্ || উমাদেবী শিরঃ পাতু ললাটে শূলধারিণী | চক্ষুষী খেচরী পাতু কর্ণৌ চত্বরবাসিনী || সুগন্ধা নাসিকে পাতু বদনং সর্বধারিণী | জিহ্বাঞ্চ চণ্ডিকা দেবী গ্রীবাং সৌভদ্রিকা তথা | অশোকবাসিনী চেতো দ্বৌ বাহূ বজ্রধারিণী | হৃদয/ ল্ললিতা দেবী উদরং সিংহবাহিনী || কটিম্ভগবতী দেবী দ্বাবূরূ বিন্ধ্যবাসিনী | মহাবলা চ জঙ্ঘে দ্বে পাদৌ ভূতলবাসিনী || এবং স্থিতাসি দেবি ত্বন্ত্রৈলোক্যে রক্ষণাত্মিকা | রক্ষ মাং সর্বগাত্রেষু দুর্গে দেবি নমোঽস্তু তে || iti stotram.h || atha kabacham.h shR^iNu debi prabakShyAmi kabachaM sarbasiddhidam.h || paThitbA pAThayitbA cha naro muchyeta sa~NkaTAt.h || aj~nAtbA kabachandebi durgAmantra~ncha yo japet.h | sa nApnoti phalantasya para~ncha narakambrajet.h || umAdebI shiraH pAtu lalATe shUladhAriNI | chakShuShI khecharI pAtu karNau chatbarabAsinI || sugandhA nAsike pAtu badanaM sarbadhAriNI

Durgadevi Kavacham - Sanskrit

From Shakta Pramoda इति स्तोत्रम् ॥ अथ कवचम् शृणु देवि प्रवक्ष्यामि कवचं सर्वसिद्धिदम् ॥ पठित्वा पाठयित्वा च नरो मुच्येत सङ्कटात् ॥ अज्ञात्वा कवचन्देवि दुर्गामन्त्रञ्च यो जपेत् । स नाप्नोति फलन्तस्य परञ्च नरकम्व्रजेत् ॥ उमादेवी शिरः पातु ललाटे शूलधारिणी । चक्षुषी खेचरी पातु कर्णौ चत्वरवासिनी ॥ सुगन्धा नासिके पातु वदनं सर्वधारिणी । जिह्वाञ्च चण्डिका देवी ग्रीवां सौभद्रिका तथा । अशोकवासिनी चेतो द्वौ बाहू वज्रधारिणी । हृदय/ ल्ललिता देवी उदरं सिंहवाहिनी ॥ कटिम्भगवती देवी द्वावूरू विन्ध्यवासिनी । महाबला च जङ्घे द्वे पादौ भूतलवासिनी ॥ एवं स्थितासि देवि त्वन्त्रैलोक्ये रक्षणात्मिका । रक्ष मां सर्वगात्रेषु दुर्गे देवि नमोऽस्तु ते ॥ iti stotram || atha kavacham shR^iNu devi pravakShyAmi kavachaM sarvasiddhidam || paThitvA pAThayitvA cha naro muchyeta sa~NkaTAt || aj~nAtvA kavachandevi durgAmantra~ncha yo japet | sa nApnoti phalantasya para~ncha narakamvrajet || umAdevI shiraH pAtu lalATe shUladhAriNI | chakShuShI khecharI pAtu karNau chatvaravAsinI || sugandhA nAsike pAtu vadanaM sarvadhAriNI

Classical Sanskrit Literature - 04 - Creative Period - Drama

1. Dialogue hymns of Rig Veda: a. 10.10 - between Yama and Yami b. 10.95 - between Pururavas and Aila c.  10.108 - between Sarama and the Panis 2. naTyashAstra by bharata 3. amRRita manthana and tripura dAha mentioned in nAtyashAstra 4. shAriputraprakaraNa by ashvaghoSha 5. Other dramas: a. Based on Ramayana i. pratimA ii. abhiSheka b. Based on Mahabharata i. madhyama vyAyoga ii. pa~NcharAtra iii. dUtavAkya iv. dUtaghaTokacha v. karnabhAra vi. Urubhanga vii. bAlacharita c. Based on bRRihatkathA i. svapnavAsavadatta ii. pratiGYA yaugandharayaNa d. Others: i. avimAraka ii. chArudatta References 1. Cultural Glory of Ancient India, Banerji. Page 47 - 53

Classical Sanskrit Literature - 02 - Creative Period - Prose

1. mahAbhAshya by Patanjali 2. vAsavadattA, sumanottarA and bhaimarathI referred to by Patanjali 3. avadAna literature dealing with Buddha's previous lives    3.1 avadAna shataka    3.2 divyAvadAna    3.3 mahAvastu    3.4 lalitavistAra 4. jAtaka mAlA by AryashUra 5. pa~Nchatantra containing mitrabheda, mitraprApti, saMdhivigraha, labdhanAsha and aparIkShita kAritva 6.  bRRihatkathA referred to in Dandin's kAvyAdarsha and bANa's harShacharita

Mahabharata - 09 - Commentaries and Works

Commentaries: 1. By Surya Narayana 2. By Arjunmishra 3. By Nilakantha Works based on Mahabharata: 1. Kiratarjuniya of Bharavi 2. Shishupala Vadha of Magha 3. Urubhanga by Bhasha 4. Abhigynana Shakuntalam by Kalidasa 5. Sarasamuchaya (Javanese work) based on Anushasana Parva 6. Sang Satyavan (Javanese) 7. Keravashrama (Javanese) 8. Navaruchi (Javanese)