Wednesday, March 30, 2011

nyAya - 02

Introduction to Hinduism -

Basic premise on which nyAya is developed (reference: Hindu Philosophy by Theos Barnard):
a. The world consists of uninterrupted flows of misapprehension, faults, activity, birth and pain
b. By the cessation of the flow of this chain of consequences one shall be freed
c. The way to break this chain is to obtain a fuller understanding of the true nature of things
d. Once this is accomplished, likes and dislikes will no longer exist
e. Thus there shall be no desire, which is the stimulus of action
f. This in turn will free us from rebirth

In order to attain the Supreme Knowledge, the true nature of the following 16 items must be understood.

A. Logic
1. pramAna - means of right knowledge
2. prameya - object of right knowledge
3. saMsaya - doubt
4. prayojana - purpose
5. drishtAnta - illustrative example
6. siddhAnta - tenet
7. avayava - members of a syllogism
8. tarka - refute
9. nirnaya - ascertainment

B. Error discovery and prevention--------------------------------------
10. vAda - discussion
11. jalpa - controversy
12. vitaNDA - cavil/ object
13. hetvAbhAsha - fallacy
14. chala - equivocation
15. jAti - futility
16. nigrahasthAna - disagreement in principle

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